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Full text of "Effect of high wing loading on landing technique and distance, with experimental data for the B-26 airplane"

AER No. LI4KO7 



1/ 



NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



WARTIME REPORT 



ORONALLY ISSUED 

January I9U5 as 
AdTance Eestricted Report IhWJ 



THE EFFECT OF HIGH WBfG LOADIHG ON LANDING 
TECHNIQUE AND DISTANCE, WITH EIPKRIMEHTAL 
DATA FOE THE B-26 AIRPLANE 
By F. B. GustafBon, and William J. O'Sulliran, Jr. 



Langley Memorial Aeronautical La'boratory 
Langley Field, Va. 



NACA 

WASHINGTON 

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viously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not tech- 
nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution. 



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NACA ARR No. lIiJ'07 

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMJ'niTTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



ADVANCE RESTRICTED PJSPORT 



TEE EFFECT OF HIGH WING LOADING ON LANDING 
TECIFI^cUS AND DISTANCE, IWTK EXPERIMENTAL 
DATA FOR THE B-26 AIRPLANE 
By F. 3. Gustafson and yalliain J. O'Sulllvan, Jr. 

STJW^ARY 



An analysis of th^ effect of wing loading on the 
landing flare (that is, the levellng-off part of the 
landing) indicated an irrportant effect en landing technique 
and distance. In order to check this analysis, flight 
tests were made with a r.'artin B-26 airplane loaded to 
50 pounds per square foot. It was found that, for reason- 
able accuracy and safety, the pilots used power to main- 
tain the desired speed margin and to limit the rate of 
descent at the start of the flare to about 25 feet per 
second. Other measured values essential to flare calcu- 
lations Include the follov/ingt m.inimum consistent value 
of excess speed at start of flare, Z-j percent; maxim.um 
ratio of lift coefficient Cr to m,aximum lift coeffi- 
cient C-r consistently reached, 85 percent; time 

max 
required to reach this C-r, 2 seconds; tim.e required to 

reduce the C-r value to that for level flight at the end 
of the flare, 1 second. Since these allowances do not 
differ widely from those needed at low wing loadings (with 
the exception of the definite limitation of vertical 
velocity), it is concluded that the effect of an increase 
in wing loading on the flare path, for any airplane 
reasonably similar to the one tested, can be satisfac- 
torily calculated. 



INTRODUCTION 



Increased wing loading, for purposes of landing- 
distance studies, requires primarily an increase in the 



NACA ARR No. ll^KO? 



value of stalling speed used, vith consequent increase 
In the approach soeed and the speed at ground con- 
tact. For the pov/er-off condition, changes in lift- 
drag ratio L/D or -maxiriuin 1: f t coefficient C^, „ , s.ve 

sacondary. Tf the landing techjnique remains i.inchan£ed, 
therefore, the size of field needed will increase markedly 
because of the higher horizontal velocities. The dif- 
ficulty of exercising sufficient judgment in executing 
the landing flare Ctr.e leveling-off part of the landing), 
in order to avoid dangerous vertical velocities at the 
instant of contact, will also increase because of the 
increased vertical velocity in the approach. The 
analysis reported in reference 1 showed that the tech- 
nique required for the shortest ground run was not 
affected by v;ing loading and that the length of the 
nm increases In almost exact proportion to the wing 
loading. An analysis of the effect of loading oh the 
landing flare, however, showed not only an increase 
in the horizontal distance from an altitude of 5^ feet 
to the end of the flare but also an increase in the 
height at -vvhich the flare must be started. It v/as 
apparent from, this analysis that some change in the tech- 
nique used, either in the approach or in the flare or in 
both, v/as to be expected. In order to determine whether 
the theoretical flare calculations adequately repre- 
sented the changes that the pilots found necessary, 
landing tests with an airplane of high wing loading 
were considered desirable. A E-26 m.ediur.-bomber air- 
olane was used for these tests. 



TIIEORETTCAL TrEATIvCENT PKICR TO TESTS 



Step-by-step calculations of the flare path were 
made for four stalling speeds and for four amounts of 
excess speed at the start of the flare, with the same 
glide angle^ the same L/D, and the G^m.e lift coefficients 
assumed in all cases. The initial calculations were 
msde on the assumption of an instantaneous change 
in "^r^ from the valu3 used in the epnroach to a con- 
stant value maintained throughout the flare. A study of 



NACA ARR No. li;K07 



data on actual landings resulted in the modification of 
these calculations on the assumption that the lift- 
coeffici ent change occurred during an interval of 
2 seconds and that the change occurred in the form of 
a sine v;ave. 

These theoretical calculations indicated that 
increase in wing loading produces the following signi- 
ficant changes: 

(1) The height at which the flare must be started 
increases almost directly with the vi/ing loading. 

(2) The time required for the m.aneuver increases 
as the square root of the viring loading. 

(5) The loss in speed during the flare is a con- 
stant percentage of the stalling speed. 

(Ij.) The horizontal distance from a height of 
50 feet to the end of the flare (that Is, to the point 
at which zero vertical velocity is reached) increases 
about 55 percent if the wing loading is increased from 
25 pounds ;oer square foot to ^0 pounds per square foot. 

It was further obvious from general considerations 
that an error in the judgment of the pilot in executing 
the flare with an airplane of high wing loading would 
bring much more serious consequences than the sam;e per- 
centage error in technique with an airplane of low wing 
loading , 



APPARATUS, AND TESTS 



The appearance and general arrangement of the 
Martin B-26 medium-bom.be r airplane m.ay be noted in 
figures 1 to 3. The longitudinal axis of this air- 
plane is identical with the thrust axis; dimensions 
and other details are as follows: 



k NACA ARR No. ri|K07 



Attituri.e engle of longitudinal axis, static 

position, deg 

"'i ng 

Area, total (including ailerons and fuselage), 

S q f t '^ 602 . 

Span, i"t 65.0 

Taper ratio (ratio of root chord to tio 

chord) 5*1 

M. A.C. , ft 10.2 

Distance of lesdin{5 edge of chord (I.'.A.C., 
rotated to psrallel with thrust aj.i s about 
quarter-chord point) 

Behind nose of airplane, ft 20.1 

Above lon.^itudinal axis, ft 1.8 

Airfoil (root) NACA 0017-61+ 

Airfoil (tip) NACA OOIO-6II 

s .... 3.5 



Angle of incidence Croot and tip), deg .... 3' 



)ihedral (leading edge), deg . I.5 

^■'lap ''balanced split) 

Area, total eflective (excladlng projected 

areas through fuselage and necelle?), cq ft . 58. 1 
Span, ;--ctual (including "J.li ft through 

fuselage and J). 2 ft through each nacelle), 

ft .:...■ " 5>2 

Chord (constant width), It 2-7 

Deilectlon from retrscted position, 

maxirrum, deg 5!?'0 

Ailerons (Frise) 

Area, total (one aileron including tab), sq ft 2ii.,ii 

ST)an (one aileron), ft 15 • 8 

Chord (hinge axis to trailing edge), percent 

wing chord 20.2 

Deflection from position continuous with wing, 
deg 

Maxirruro up IT . 1 

tviaxirrum down ■'■'+• I 

Neutral position (up) 0.8 

Fuselage 

Length, over-all, ft 52-2 

Diarneter, ^naxiiriajr! (circular), ft 7'U 

Angle vdth respect to longitudinal axis, deg . -1.0 



MCA ARH No. 1J+KO7 



Horizontal tail surface 

Area (including fuselage ahead of elevator 

hinge axis), sq ft II8.5 

Span, ft ■ . 23.7 

Angle of incidence of stabilizer, deg .... 1.0 

Dihedral, deg 8.0 

Elevator 

Area behind, hinge axis (both elevators 

Including tab"), sq ft l\.l.l 

Area ahead of hinge axis (both 

elevators), sq ft 12.9 

Distance of hinge axis (at plsine of 
symmetry) 

Behind nose of airplane, ft '^'^•b: 

Above longitudinal axis, ft 2.8 

Viaximum deflection, deg 

Up 20.0 

Down 12 . 

Vertical tail 

Area, total (excluding fuselage), sq ft ... 62.7 

Span (excluding fuselage), ft 9-5 

Pudder 

Area behind hinge axis (including tab), 

sq ft 26,2 

Area ahead of hinge axis, sq ft 0.5 

Distance of hinge axis behind nose of 

airplane (at root), ft U9 • 8 

Maximum deflection, deg 12^.0 

Landing gear (retractable tricycle) 

Distance between center lines of main wheels, 

ft 21.9 

V.Tieel axle location (airplane static load, 
28,512 lb) 
Main wheels 

Behind nose, ft ^^■•S 

Below longitudinal axis, ft 5- 3 

Nose wheel 

Behind nose, ft 5-1 

Below longitudinal axis, ft o.i; 

Engines: Tv/O engines, power rating (normal, one engine) 
1500 bhp at 2ij_00 rpm at 75OO ft 

Propellers; k blades, 13.5-ft diameter; constant speed 
or manual pitch control; full feathering 



NACA ARR No. ri^XOY 



Tjight r..nd center of gravity position 
Normal loading 

Weight, lb 23,512 

Center of gravity (landing gear retracted) 

Crew at flight stations, percent T'.A.C. ll+.S 
Crew at battle stations, percent M.A.C. lb. 5 
Yiaxirrum loading 

veight, lb' 31,i;21 

Center of gravity (landing gear retracted 
and crev at flight stations), percent 

M.A.C 16.9 

Distance of e.g. belov longitudinal axis 

(approximate; all conditions), ft O.5 

Heifht of e.g. above ground, airplane at 

rest, f t . \ 7.2 

Horizontiil distance fron e.g. to main v-'hecls, 

airplane at rest, ft 2.6 

Moments of inertia( approximate ) , slug-ft 

Pitch ...... 76,000 

Roll 70,000 

■/aw 114-2,000 



The airplane, as ballasted for most of the tests, 
had a v:ing loading of ^0 oounds per square foot and a 
newer loading of about 10 pounds per horsepov/er. In the 
first part of the tests, the airplane was somewhat lighter 
than these values indicate. The weight corresponding to 
each landing is shown in the summary table (table I). 

All landings were made by KACA test oilots having 
v.'ide experience with other types of airplane but no 
experience with the 3-26 airplane prior to these tests. 
Although an attempt was m>ade to cover a fair range of 
power settings, and speed margins for the approach con- 
dition, the prim.ary objective m^as to produce abrupt 
flares after an approach at the steepest angle and the 
lowest speed considered by the pilots to be reasonably 
safe; that is, the pilots at tem.pt ed to use technique con- 
ducive to the shortest posslDle total run from a height 
of 50 feet. A number of landings also were recorded in 
which the personal choice of the pilots determined the 
technique used. 

All landings were made at Lang ley Field, Va. Som^e 
tests v/ere made between Novem_ber I/4, 19ljl» £^nd December 7> 
19[(.l; the remainder of the tests were made between July Ij., 
19a2, and August 15, I9U2. All landings in the first 
series (referred to herein as the I9U1 series) were made 



NAOA ARP No. li^XQ? 7 

on bare, dry, concrete runways. Tests of the second series 
(referred to herein as the Tli+2 series) were made on con- 
crete r-omways coated with camouflage material consisting 
of sawdust spread on an asphalt binder. The surface of the 
runvvays Vi?8s sometimes moist from rains on previous days 
but was covered with water only in the instance . noted in 
the sumi.iary table (table I). 

PoGording instruments installed during the l*^)-! series 
of tests Included the following; 

NACA three -component accelerometer 

NACA rolling-velocity recorder 

NACA pltching-veloclty recorder 

NACA airspeed recorder 

NACA m.echanical-optical control-position 

recorders arranged to record position of elevators, 
ailerons, rudder, throttles , and all three shock 
struts 

The horizontal and vertical displacements and the attitude 
angle of the airplane vjere recorded by two phototheodolites 
stationed on the lending field. The phototheodolites and 
their uses are fully described in reference 2. 

In the I9I4.2 series of tests the following additional 
instrumients v;ere installed in the airplane: 

NACA two-com.ponent accelerom.eter , normal and longi- 
tudinal elements (of gr'eater sensitivity than the 
NACA three-component accelerometer) 

Statoscope 

Hydraulic pressure recorder connected to brake lines 

Clne-'^odak motion-picture camera for obtaining tire- 
deflection data in impact 

The oontrol-oosi tlon recorders for ailerons, rudder, and 
shock struts were omAtted during the 19^^-2 series of tests. 

The accelerom.eters and the angular-velocity recorders 
were placed at (or close to) the center of gravity of the 
airplane. All instrum.ents in the airplane received timing 
Impulses from a single NACA timaer. Synchronization of the 
two phototheodolites with the Instrum.ents was effected by 
firing a flash bulb (visible in the phototheodoll te records) 
in the nose of the airplane and simultaneously operating a 
solenoid that oroduced a breaV: in a record line on one of 
the instruments. 

PRECISION 

The precision of the measurem.ents is believed to be 
within the following llm.its: 



8 NACA ARR No. ri|K07 



Vertical displacsment froir phototheodoli te , ft . . . ±3 
.''orizontal dlt' placement from phototheodolite , ft . . ±10 

Vertical displacement from statoscope, ft ±10 

Attitude angle, deg ±1.0 

Vertical velocity, ft/cec ±5 

AJrspeed, m.iles/hr ±2 

Manifold pressure, in. Ilg +0.5 

Control surface angles, deg ±0.^ 

Pitching velocity, radian/sec ±0.005 

Rolling velocity, radian/seo ±0.01 

Normal acceleration, g ±0,05 

Horizontal acceleration (two-component 

instrument), g tO.OJ 

Horizontal acceleration (three-component 

Instrument), g tO.O^ 

Transverse acceleration, g ±0.0ll 

2rake-line pressure, Ib/sq In, ±10 



These values are based on scatter of points, 
differunces between original and reread values, and in 
some cases on com.parison of results from, different 
instrum.ents or results obtained bv different m.ethods. 



R3SULTS 



The results of the m.easurements are sum.marized in 
table I. The data are presented as time histories in 
figures 1; to 29. The tim.e histories have been grouped 
according to the am.ount of data pi'esented and the groups 
are Introd^i.ced in the order of their significance to the 
study of the air runs. The time histories that are of 
primary interest in studies of landing approach and flare 
are given in figures h to 1I4.. For convenience, the figure 
numbers corresponding tc the various landings are listed 
in table "!" . At the speeds covered in these tests, the 
effects of com,pressibili ty are so small that the air- 
speeds given may be considered as either the observed 
alrsDoed corrected for installation and insti'ument er-^ors 

1/2 

or VO where V is the true airspeed and cr is the 



rl. 



ensi ty ratio. 



Examination of the time histories indicates that 
many of th^ records taken during the glide and flare, 
including the nonnal acceleration and the elevator posi- 
tion, are rather unsteady. Such unsteadiness is common 



NACA ART? No. LJ4.KO7 



in landing records. The degree of unsteadiness has been 
shown, in some previous tests, to be much greater In rimgh 
air than in smooth air. The degree of unsteadiness is 
also nndoabtedly dependent to some extent on the degree 
01 stability and the type of the control balance and the 
nature of the response of the particular airplane. 

Results of glide-test measurements of the l/D of 
the airplane over a range of conditions appropriate to 
the various landings are given in figure JO. The values 
are termed "equivalent" L/D's because they include the 
effect of propeller thrust. Measurements of this kind 
were necessary for the theoretical treatment shown in 
figure 31 • 



DISCUSSION 

Approach and Flare Path 



Vertical velocity in approach .- It became apparent 
early in the tests that steady power-off approaches would 
result in vertical velocities, at the beginning of the 
flare, that equaled or exceeded the vertical velocity 
v/hich the pilots could consistently handle v/ith safety. 
The choice of a specific vertical velocity for the 
approach, above which too much safety and accuracy are 
lost, is necessarily somewhat arbitrary. Consideration 
of the comm.ents of the pilots together with study of the 
data obtained, however, led to the choice of a value of 
25 feet per second. The basis for the choice is most 
readily understood if the landings are considered in 
three separate groups. 

(1) Powor-off landings: Under the proper conditions 
and after sufficient experience had been obtained, the 
pilots made several landings in v/hich the throttles were 
closed long before the end of the approach and viere not 
reopened. In one instance, the throttles were closed at 
an altitude of I5OO feet and were not reopened. Values 
of vertical velocity up to 37 feet per second resulted 
at the start of the flare. These landings are considered 
exhibitions of piloting skill. The records indicate that, 
for these landings, the airplane tended to level off too 
high and to "balloon" (rise) at the end of the flare. This 
condition necessitated a second approach and flare of 
smaller proportions, (See figs. 14 and 9«) 



10 NACA ARR No. LI4.KO7 



(2) Fower-on landings: For coirparison with po\.er- 
off landings, a number of landings were recorded in which 
the pilots used considerable power (iranifold pressure, 
about 20 inches of mercury) and started the flare with 
vertical velocities of about I5 to 20 feet p-cir second. 
During these landings there was no tendency to balloon 
and in several instances ground contact was m.ade without 
completing, the flare but without any abnormal shock in 
impact. (See figs. 7, 21, and 2k and table I.) These 
landings include landings in which the pilot was not 
following any special instructions and was using the 
technique that he felt provided the greatest safety. 

(3) Landings with moderate power: In the ir;ajority 
of landings the pilots miSde the approach with the highest 
vertical velocity considered reasonably safe. Yianifold 
pressures of about 10 to 12 inches of mercury were used 
in the approach and the flare was started with a vertical 
velocity of 20 to $0 feet per second. The accuracy with 
which the flare was completed appears marginal in these 
landings; that is, som.e records showed a tendency for 
the airplane to level off too high and to balloon, while 
others did not, with no definite correlation with the 
vertical velocity apparent. 

Consideration of these three groups of landings 
Indicates the following conclusions: The power-off 
landings, with vertical velocities of 50 to L|.0 feet per 
second, are in no sense practicable or comjnon maneuvers. 
The power-on landings, with vertical velocities of 
20 feet per second and less, produce accurate flares 
that cause no necessity for an additional maneuver before 
making ground contact. The accuracy and practicability 
of the landings with intermediate power settings and 
vertical velocities between 20 and JO feet per second 
are marginal. The average of the marginal values, 
25 feet per second, is considered a rational limiting 
value for use in flare calculations. 

Speed m'-'.rn-in in annro'-ich. - Calculations of the flare 
path require also an ass-umed speed margin. The excess 
STDeed maintained in the approach during the various 
landings is given in table I as a percentage of the 
stalling speed (as obtained from m.easurements at altitude) 
for the corresponding power ind flap settings. If allowance 
Is made for the fact that the landings made at the highest 
power settings were not strictly test landings and that 
the pilot was allowing a greater margin of safety than 



NAGA ARR No. LI4KO7 11 

in the other landings, a tendency toward the reduction 
of the speed rrar^in with increase in power setting and 
decrease in vertical velocity is then apparent. The 
fact that the power-on approaches, with low vertical 
velocity, were made with outstandingly low horizontal 
velocities results to a large extent froir the higher 
n'.aximupi lift coefficients which apply to the powor-on 
condition. It is common in piloting experience to find 
t^-at the stalling speed is much lower with power on than 
v'lth power off and is immediately increased when the 
Toiler is reduced. Application of power in m.aking landings 
therefore makes possible both a slov</er approach and a 
more rapid lift reduction for a "spot" landing than could 
be obtained with pov;er off. 

Consideration of the purpose and the conditions for 
the various landings resulted in the selection of a value 
of 25 percent of the stalling speed as a logical value 
of excess speed for use with an assumed vertical velocity 
of 25 feet per second. It is noteworthy in this connection 
that, v;hen a flare was begun with 21 percent excess speed, 
the airplane stalled prior to completion of the flare 
''landing 7, lQLi.2 : see fig. 6), 

Percent of Gr used in landing flare.- The maximum 
^"max 

ratio of c7~ to G- used in the leveling-off period.. 
•^ ■'-max 

has been tabulated in table I for the various landings. 

Because the power setting usually was changed during the 

flare, the values used for Cr often do not correspond 

4nax 

to the stalling speeds used in calculating the speed margin 

in the aoproach. No correlation of ratio of Cr to Cr 

^ -^nax 
v.'ith vertical velocity of approach, or any other factor, 
is apparent. '^''alues of this ratio of about 9*^ percent 
usually were reached in the tests. These values are peak 
values; inspection of the time histories indicates o^ per- 
cent to be a logical value for use in any calculations 
which require that the value bo sustained for an appreci- 
able period. This value of 35 percent is slightly less 
than the actual average but, in view of the obvious 
seriousiiess of stalling during a flare started at high 
vertical velocity, a margin of I5 percent would seem 
the lowfest value that should be suggested for consistent 
use. 



12 NAG A ARP No. IJ+XO? 

Ti-ine required to change Cy.- Inspection of the ti-me 

histories leads to an assumption of 2 seconds for the 
time required to increase Ct from the value used in the 
a-^proach to the mazirr.um value used in the flare and 
1 second for the time reauired to reduce Or to the 
value for steady level flight at the end of the flare. 

Sxamoles of theoretical calculations .- A theoretical 
flare tim^e history based on the assumptions for vertical 
velocity, excess speed, and timie required to change Cr is 
shown as conc^ition (a) on figure ^1. The value of L/D 
used is based on the approach angle as determined by the 
rate of descent and approach velocity. Glide tests made 
at altitude with the same pov/er and flap settings (see 
fig. 50) gave a value in good agreem.ent with this value 
and shewed the L/D to be nearly constant over the full 
range of lift coefficients used in the flare. For com- 
parison with the theoretical tim.e history, values taken 
I'-r-om the experimental data of figures 6 and 8 have been 
plotted on the figure. 

In order to show the extent to which the pilots' use 

ol' a value of Or less than Cr affects the oath, a 

^ Hnax 

theoretical time history for the same approach conditions 

but with the entire flare made at Cr is given in 

■4nax 
figure 51 (condition (b)). 

Because the m.argins of speed and lift coefficient 
found in these tests are consistent with those experienced 
with airplanes of lighter loading, it is believed that 
the effect of a moderate further increase in loading can 
be calculated with fair accuracy. In order to illustrate 
the application of the theoretical treatment to higher 
v.'ing loadings, the same assumptions as used in condi- 
tion (a) of figure Jl for vertical velocity, excess speed, 
Ct, and tim.e required to change Ct have been aoplied 

to a hypothetical airolane with 50 percent higher loading. 
The resulting, time history is shov:n as condition (c) in 
the same figure. 

Possible variation of as sum.pt i ons . - The applicability 
of the assum.ptions based on these tests to any particular 
case js conditioned by the follov.'ing considerations: 



NACA ARR Ko. rJ+K07 I5 

The rraxinuTTi practicable rate of descent v;ill vary 
some'jvhat sccording to the degree of experience and ebility 
of the pilot. 

The percentage of excess speed needed in the approach 
may be reduced slightly with further increase in loading, 
since the vortical velocity to be checked v/ill not be 
increased further. This result follows from the fact 
that, when the vertical velocity is assumed to increase 
in prooortion to the loading, tho percentage of excess 
speed required remains constant. 

The maxim.um lift coefficient reached in the flare 
will vary with the pilots' experience and conservatism. 
The pilot, in addition, m;U3t allow a greater margin if 
he is flying an airplane that rolls unexpectedly, has a 
rapid decrease in L/D as the stall is approached, or 
otherwise has unfavorable characteristics at or near the 
stall. 

The 2-second interval used to reach the maximum 
value of Ct attained in the flare has previously been 
observed vjit'h airplanes of lower loading than the air- 
plane' used in the present tests and widely different 
general characteristics. Since the records of elevator 
m.ovemerit show that only a fraction of the available eleva- 
tor travel is used, the lengtb of the interval appears 
to be determined by the preference of the pilot rather 
then by any limitation of available pitching moment. 
Since these data include landings made by three different 
pilots, the value would seem to be reasonably general. 

The time used to reduce Cy to that for steady level 
flight at the end of the flare varied more than any other 
factor. This result might be expected since this period 
provides the final opport'onity to correct for err^ors or 
the effect of unpredictable changes in wind conditions. 
In some cases the flare was terminated by ground contact 
without the need of the 1-second period of adjustm.ent, 
but this termination cannot be co\"jnted upon as a regular 
procedure following an abrupt flare. The chief effect 
of the period of adjastment used in ending the flare is 
to increase the horizontal distance consum.ed; the effect 
of this period of adjustm.ent on the height at v/hich the 
the flare muft be started is negligible. 



lij. NACA ARR No. lI+KO? 



Technique fo r shortest total lending r'ln .- It should 
not be takan for granted that the use of tho maxinuin value 
of rate of descent v;hich the pilot is v;illing to use will 
result in the shortest practicable landing. Inspection 
of the data obtained indicates that the shortest total 
d:' stance froir a height of 5^ feet to a stop, even under 
emergency conditions, v/ill be obtained by the use of more 
power, and hence lower vertical velocity, than the amount 
which corresponded to what the pilots considered reasonable 
limitations. The use of more power and lower vertical 
velocity shows two advantages: (1) greater accuracy in 
completing the flare and (2) lower speed at the end of 
the flare. The exact point at which the effect of these 
advantages ceases to offset the effect of the flattening 
of the glide path would, of course, be very difficult to 
determine even for a given airplfjie, pilot, and runway 
S!x.rf ace . 



Ground R'an 

The data presented for the ground runs have not been 
analyzed in detail but examination indicates that treat- 
ment similar to that given in reference 1, including the 
2-second transition tim.e betv/een ground contact and brake 
application 'used in the exam.ples), would provide reason- 
able values for the length of the shortest possible ground 
run. The experience gained in the tests served, however, 
to emphasize the fact that maximum braking is strictly an 
emergency procedure rather than a practicable routine 
procedure and that the brakes must be in proper condition 
if such a stop is to be made. During the second series 
of tests an unequal braking action existed, the cause of 
v;hich was not determined and corrected until after 
landing ik. 

The brakes showed a lag of approxim;ately 1 second upon 
initial application. Since the pilots do not apply the 
brakes prior to nose-v/heel contact with an airplane of 
this type (particularly when the nose is already descending 
rapidly), the effect of this lag is to increase the mlnim.um 
length of run by about I50 feet. 



NACA ARR No. lliKOy I5 

CONOLTTSIONS - 



Flight ter.ts, which were made to verify an analysis 
of the effect of vjing loading on the landing flare (the 
leveling-off part of a landing), indicated the following 
concluaioris : 

1. Considerations of safety and accuracy limit the 
rate of descent used in the landing approach to about 
25 feet per second. 

2. V.hen the vdng loading and lift-drag ratio are such 
as to produce a value in excess of 25 feet per second in 

a power-off glide at the minimuiTi speed considered safe, 
the r'Hte of descent is reduced to 25 feet per second or 
less by application of power by the pilot. 

5. For the 3-26 airplane operated at a v.lng loading 
of 50 pounds per square foot, the height at v;hlch the 
pilot must begin the flare, the horizontal distance from 
50 feet altitude to the end of the flare, and the excess 
speed_ at ground contact can be determined satisfactorily 
by sim.ple calculations based on a rate of descent of 
25 feet per second and including normal speed, time, and 
lift -coefficient m.argins. 

U' The results obtained in the investigation are 
believed to be applicable for calculations of the effect 
on the approach and flare path of further increases in 
wing loading. 



Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory 

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics 
Langley Field, Va. 



l6 NAG A ARR No. li|K07 

TEFERENCES 



1. Gustafson, F. 3.: Tire Friction Goef floients and Their 

Relation to Ground-Run Distance in Landing. KAGA 
AFP, Tune I9L2. 

2. Wetraore, J. V/. : NAGA Apparatus and Methods for Take- 

Off and Landing Keasurement s . NAGA C3, Jan. 19U5> 



NACA ARR No- L4K07 



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Plpire o.- Ti'ne hlntory of landing approacV and flare. B-26 alrpl^no; landing 7, I'^UZ rerlef. 



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Figure JO.- Equivalent ratios of lift to drag 
of the Martin B-26 airplane. 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



3 1262 08103 298 8 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 
DOCUMENTS DEPARTMENT 
120 MARSTON SCIENCE LIBRARY 
P.O. BOX 117011 
GAINESVILLE. PL 32611-7011 USA